Thursday, December 12, 2019
Case Study & Analysis of Nigeria Tourism Branding Strategies
Question: Case Study Global tourism has experienced tremendous growth over the last half century. In an effort to benefit from the much needed income from tourism, many tourism destinations have resulted to adopting differentiation strategies in order to achieve a unique position in a very competitive global market. Select one tourism destination of your choice as your case study and critically analyse how destination branding strategies can help the chosen destination to achieve competitive advantage. Answer: Executive Summary Nigeria tourism is a great example of tourism and travel strategies. It has turned its negative image due to various unethical activities like corruption and terrorist into the more positive image, where currently most of the people around the world like to visit. Nigerian tourism Development Corporation is the organization which manages all the tourism related activities in Nigeria. Various other organizations are helping Nigeria regarding this. This report is about the emerging of Nigeria as a nation brand and what type of strategy is used by the Nigerian leaders to make it as a positive nation brand. Nigerian Leaders have developed various programs for the development of Nigerian tourism, wherein, various programs are criticized by the people but various others are praised also (Awaritefe, 2004). Lagos was the first international tourist of Nigeria who came to Nigeria in 1472 with his Portuguese merchants in search of trade and business. Many years ago, Caravan and Trans-Saharan movements also helped Nigeria to attract people from around the world as visitors. After that Nigerian tourist industry started growing with time. Various ups and downs have been seen by Nigeria due to wars and terrorist activities but currently it has a stable brand image globally. Introduction Tourism places in Nigeria become a center point for its population in some special events like Yoruba goddess temple, and Osun-Osogbo in Oshun (Awaritefe, 2004). In Nigeria, some natural places like waterfalls, savannah, rain forest and many more are also popular as tourist place and these places attract the tourists by its beauty and the environmental peace. Bad water quality, roads and poor electricity are the points which this industry has to suffer. A Nigerian government ministry, National and Tourism Orientation, and The Cultural ministry have controlled and regulated the industry of tourism. In 2004, the Pageant of Miss Tourism Nigeria, a beauty pageant, was commenced to increase the profile of tourism sector of the country. The winners in 2006, 2005, and 2004 have been respectively, Gloria Zirigbe, Abigali Longe and Shirley Aghotse (Esu Arrey, 02009). Thus, this report is a case study of Nigeria. It basically discusses about the brand strategy of Nigeria which helped it to change its image from negative to more positive. Literature review in this report provides a basic theory about the image of Nigeria around the world and the type of strategy is used by the Nigeria to make it as a strong nation brand (Olorunfemi, Raheem, 2008). Literature Review Tourists in Nigeria are attracted by many cultural celebrations and festivals (such as festivals in the north Nigeria durbar) and the national park of the nation (such as national parks of cross river and Yankari) and many geographical sites like Abuja and Aso Rock). In Taraba State, the Mambilla Plateau is the most fantastic tourist zone. This place was recognized as the Crown jewel of tourism of Nigeria on 15th August in 2012 (Fajuyigbe, Balgun, Obembe, 2007). According to the estimates, Tourism Council and the World Travel, the revenue of Nigeria tourism is increased by 10 billion $USD, in 2007. Figure 1: National Branding Strategy of Nigeria The mission of Nigerian Tourism Corporation is the nations philosophy, a lasting declaration of country intention. The vision is the prospect way for the brand, its prospect status and role (Roll, 2007). Nigeria brand vision may be to make its perceptual image / position better, reinforce the countrys financial performance in terms of tourism, inward investment and exports, and to the creation of Nigeria as a world class contented superpower. The significance of municipal insight audit cant be overemphasized in efficient nation branding. Insight audit involves wide desk investigation, thorough interviews with the Nigerian journalists, entrepreneurs and opinion and political leaders, center group session with business people of non-Nigerian and Nigerian community and a complete audit of countrys obtainable image, telephone interviews within tourists of Nigeria and an additional interviews with importers, investors and tourists in target countries, squad contribution in numerous conferences and public panels on nationwide identity and lastly, input from civil society, private and public officials, researchers, marketing professionals, designers and artists (Awaritefe, 2003). Quality of tourism in Nigeria, providing peaceful and fresh atmosphere to tourists, making Nigeria a resourceful place of study, providing quality products related to Nigerian culture, reducing dirt and pollution, making international relations, improve Nigeria as tourism brand image promotion of food and fashion of Nigeria, and increasing national gross income are the major goals that Nigerian tourism corporation want to achieve in the next five years. The external and internal strategies used by the corporate companies can also be relevant to nation brands with adjustments. By means of diffusion approach, market development, joint venture-co-branding by two countries (Aakar, 1996; Dinnie, 2008), conglomerate diversification (development of inward investment and exports) or conglomerate diversification made by the Nigeria brand team. By making its segmentation strategy and brand scope (Adora, 2010). The consciousness of Nigeria has enhanced towards its image that is impacting the world. Various initiatives have been taken by the Nigerian govt. in this direction which resulted into the change of negative brand image to positive brand image of Nigeria. Purchasing costly advertisement, hosting sporting events, hiring foreign public relations firms and catchy slogans can be used in the countrys tourism brand management system. Mainly problems come when it comes to the cost related to implementation and management but various examples like Nigerian tourism proved that there is no need of expensive campaigns for national brand initiative. Nigeria used its film industry, Nollywood as a core part of its tourism branding strategy. Nollywood is playing an important role in building positive tourism brand image around the world (Karatepe, Aleshinloye, 2009). Due to Human right abuse which was extended period of dictatorship, the image of Nigeria has been tainted over the years. Various terrorist activities, failed international events, the role of Farouk Abdulmutalib in 419 internet scams had ruined the image of Nigeria. Thus, Nigeria has faced the results of negative image internationally for many years. According to Brach (2010), Nigeria initiated managing its brand image since 1966 under the guidance of 3R program, reconstruction, rehabilitation and reconciliation. This program was initiated by the former head of state Yakubu Gowon (Eja Ushie, 2009). War Against indiscipline (WAI) and mass mobilization for self-reliance (MAMSER) were subsequent initiatives of this program. WAI was initiated in 1983 to establish the moral codes. MAMSER was initiated in 2004 to embark on the image of Nigeria. This project was spearheaded by Ministry of national orientation and information under the former president Ofusegan Obasanjo administration. Hea rt of Africa campaign in 2005 was launched by the project with the cost of USD 5.6 million. The goal of the campaign was to change the image of Nigeria outside its borders. For this, Nigerian government has identified that first it is necessary to create feeling of pride in the citizens of Nigeria for their country. Various initiatives by Nigerian govt. has faced harsh criticism due to various reasons over the years. Due to at time foreign to the Nigerian, time consuming and being costly, these have been disparaged. The overseas project HOA gained the fame for being elitist and foreign (Karatepe, Magaji, 2008). This program was criticized for its too much similarity with the Malawis foreign tourism brands slogan Warm heart of Africa. Additionally, the citizens of Nigeria were not allowed to participate in the campaign. As the brand owner, a collective activity is not conceived by it and internal citizen stakeholders are not focus point for it. New branding strategies were seeking in Nigeria due to these reasons. The focus point of those new strategies is to include the national citizens. In 2009, Rebranding Nigeria project was launched by Dora Akunyili, the slogan of that project was Nigeria- Great Nation Good People. Dora Akunyili is the minister of information in former Nigeria (Mustapha, 2001). The reputation managements latest attempt is also criticized like the previous campaigns. Nollywood, the film industry of Nigeria, has potential to influence the tourism brand and reputation of Nigeria. Almost in a year, 2000 films and more are produced by Nollywood according to its volume and global reach testifying. In the world, the second largest industry in film industry is Nollywood according to this fact. DVD, satellite televisions and theaters are the way to distribute the Nollywood movies around the world. The African continent is also like the movies of Nollywood (Rao, Suresh, 2001). Nollywood movies have gained popularity in America also over the last 10 years. Movies of Nollywood are also popular in Latin country of Guyana. Further, the people from British colonies are also getting entertained from the Nigerian movies. Thus, the Nollywood movies are getting famous in all over the world and popularizing the scenes and cultures of Nigeria which is attracting people and creating positive image about Nigerian tourism (Ghimire, 2001). According to a recent report by Euromonitor, Nigerias film industry has helped to change stereotypes about Nigeria by highlighting its culture, norms, creativity and hospitality. (34). In doing so, it has influenced the willingness for potential travellers to travel to Nigeria, by attracting domestic and continental tourists. Many of these tourists have been visiting film shooting locations in cities like Lagos. African tourists arrivals to Nigeria are expected to increase over the next few years, driven by expanding economies throughout Africa. In response, Nollywood has encouraged this type of tourism through reinvesting in tourist-friendly production facilities (Karatepe, 2011). According to the latest Euromoniters report, stereotypes about Nigeria have changed by focusing its hospitality, creativity, norms, and culture, it was a big help to Nigeria by its film industry. By this, it attracts the potential travelers to travel in Nigeria. Various tourists visit Nigeria to watch their film shooting locations like Logos. According to the expectations of Nigerian Tourism Corporation, the African tourists are going to increase in next few years in Nigeria, the same report is also published by the African economists. Hollywood is actively participating in this type of tourisms by providing tourist friendly production facility to the tourists (Bankle, Odularu, 2006). Discussion and Analysis In 1962, The Nigerian Tourist Association (NTA) was established by the government. National Tourist Association works to promote international and domestic tourism in the Nation. In 1976, National Tourism Association was dissolved due to some reasons and its place is taken by the NTB which stands for Nigerian Tourism Board (Akpabio, Eniang, Egwalli, 2008). In 1990, the sub sectors got a boost in its development, this happened because the ministry of Industry and Trade was created, and now National Tourism board is considered as corporation. By generating foreign exchange, great potentials are achieved by the significance of tourism, for example in 1987, 328906 tourists arrived and N1.1 billon was earned by the Nigerian tourism according to the Central Bank of Nigeria. It was expected that N53 billon can be earned by this industry by the year 2000 and that amount can be increased by the year 2005. This could be possible in the country by stabilizing democratic distention (Soremekumn, 1999). Various attractive tourist locations are available in Nigeria, but the dark part is that only few of them are currently active. When the Nigerian tourism will be fully developed, it will be a great source of opportunity for Nigeria and can earn great revenue from this business, till now almost all the active tourist places are creating great impact on the global tourists (Olokesusi, 1990). Federal Airports authority of Nigeria (FAAN), National population commission (NPC), Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS), The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), National Bureau of Statistics are the active agencies that are included in the direction of development of tourism in related activities and Nigeria (Ajayi, 1972). But the Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation is the agency which is the key agency whose responsibility is to collect data and produce various facilities for the visitors. In the past years the government of Nigeria didnt understand the importance of travel and tourism for a country, but now it has realized the importance of travel and tourism as the national economys strategic sector. A new brand is created by the NTDC (Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation), that brand is Fascinating Nigeria; its aim is to make well developing industries to those industries which are struggling. With time, the aim of that brand is changed and now the aim is to contribute towards the nation by the help of tourism and travel industries. For more increment in tourism and travel the NTDC includes joining the ICTP (International Coalition of Tourism Partners). To increase the growth of tourism and travel industry, some new technology exploded to increase the facilities by Nigeria. A new kind of visa card, for the tourists, is launched so the problems, that are related to carry cash while travelling, can be decreased. To reduce the fraudulent activities, a new type of biometric registration is created for the industrys workers. That facility is especially made for the hospitality sector. These facilities are just not to boost the industry of travel and tourism, but also to make best practices and global standards for the industries of Nigeria. Africas booming economics has presented a potential growth in the international hotel chains but now Nigeria was also in this battle. Due to the growing demand and oil-rich company, top international hotels are established that footholds in Nigeria like Best Western, Marriot, Hilton, Radisson Blu, and Sheraton are the hotels which already established there. These hotels are interested to expand their property in the country. The biggest quality of Nigeria is its hospitality, so by this it has become an attractive place for hotel investors. Domestic tourism and travel development has prioritized by NTDC in Nigeria in a boost growth of travel and tourism industry. Maintainance and revenues of tourism and travel is already potentially grown in the country. For sports events, religion reasons, cultural events, leisure and business, 15 % of its population travel domestically. Stakeholders are being mobilized by Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation in the private sectors. Cultural activities are also encouraged by NTDC as a base for packaging and branding of domestic tourism and travel products. To provide facility to travel around the world to the local customers, the NDTC plans to create sea and land transportation hubs. Allover, Nigerian tourism has developed as the nation brand around the world with its tremendous efforts and various programs. According to a research it is found that Nigerian Tourism contributes 2.5% of the revenue of the total revenue of the country. Nigerian tours and travels have also enhanced the job opportunities for the people of Nigeria. Nearly 8, 50,000 people i.e. 1.3% of the total population of Nigeria are employed in the tourism of Nigeria (Ekechukwu, 1990). Thus, Nigeria has developed itself as a global brand and become very famous around the world. Conclusion Currently Nigeria is very famous as a tourism site but the situation was a bit different few years ago. The reputation of Nigeria was very down due to corruption, terrorism and various other activities, but Nigerian leaders has made proper strategies and proper efforts to make Nigeria as a nation brand around the world. The branding strategy of Nigeria was praised around the world. Nigeria used the above defined framework for making Nigeria a tourism brand. Moreover, national leaders of Nigeria have initiated various programs in this direction which enhanced the position of country around the world. Nigeria used its film industry Nollywood to advertise the tourism of Nigeria globally. The movies from Nigeria is getting watched in various countries around the world. Recommendation Many big actors must unanimously come together in the industry of tourism to target business and market strategy to achieve their goals. A play ground level should be built for the actors to be a participant in the branding process; this level is not for the biggest companies to be hijacked in the industry which can have a brand architecture and identity. The members should develop a consistent message over time such as brands content, like basic message, needs and value, consented by the need. A process can be designed by the tourist board, by that process it should imbued the travel agencies and tourists centers employees with the value of good organization, honesty and friendliness. The tourism boards personality and the Nigerian brand should have allegiance between them. Education is another sector by which Nigeria can attract the people from outside countries. For this Nigeria has to make itself an education brand around the world like UK. UK has launched its website www.uk.universities.ac.uk to make it as an education brand. All the activities related to this program are managed by the Department of International development of the British council. The purpose of this website was to create awareness in the people about the best universities in the UK globally so that students from foreign countries can come to UK for study purpose. References Awaritefe, O. (2004). Motivation and other considerations in tourist destination choice: a case study of Nigeria. Tourism Geographies, 6(3),p. 303-330. Awaritefe, O. D. (2004). Destination image differences between prospective and actual tourists in Nigeria. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(3),p. 264-281. Esu, B. B., Arrey, V. M. E. (2009). 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